From Longman Dictionary of Contemporary Englisheffectef‧fect1 /ɪˈfekt/ ●●● S1 W1 noun 1 change/result [countable, uncountable]RESULT a change that is caused by an event, action etceffect on My parents’ divorce had a big effect on me.effect of the harmful effects of modern farming practices the long-term effects of the drug I could feel the effects of the thin mountain air. This ingredient also has the effect of making your skin look younger. A system failure has a knock-on effect throughout the whole hotel. the cumulative effect of human activities on the global environment A much lower dose of the painkiller can still produce the desired effect. In mental illness, there is a complex relationship between cause and effect. → greenhouse effect, side effect ► Do not confuse with the verb affect (=to have an effect on something).2 → put/bring something into effect3 → take effect4 law/rule a) take effect/come into effect if a law, rule, or system takes effect or comes into effect, it officially starts b) be in effect if a law, rule, or system is in effect, it is being used now5 → with immediate effect/with effect from6 → in effect7 → to good/great/no etc effect8 → to this/that/the effect9 idea/feeling [countable usually singular]SEEM an idea or feeling that an artist, speaker, book etc tries to make you think of or to feel SYN impressioneffect of Turner’s paintings give an effect of light.10 → for effect11 → effects12 film [countable usually plural]AMAPT an unusual or impressive sound or image that is artificially produced for a film, play, or radio programme → sound effects, special effectCOLLOCATIONSverbshave an effect on something/somebodyEating junk food will eventually have an effect on your health.have the effect of doing somethingThe news had the effect of making everyone feel better.produce an effect formalIf we combine these sounds, they produce an effect that is almost jazzy.feel an effect (=notice it)Small companies will feel the effect of the recession first.lessen/reduce an effect (=make an effect smaller or less severe)The government must take action to reduce the effects of pollution.cushion the effect of something (=make it less bad)Lower mortgage rates will cushion the effect of rising house prices.an effect lasts (=continues)The effect of the drug lasts about six hours.an effect wears off (=gradually stops)The effect of the anaesthetic was beginning to wear off.adjectivesbig/major The teachers’ strike had a big effect on many schools.significant/substantial/marked (=quite big)Global warming could have a significant effect on agriculture in many parts of the world.profound/powerful (=very big, in a way that changes someone or something significantly )My father’s death had a profound effect on me.dramatic (=very big and sudden)Taking the new drug had a dramatic effect on his health.small The drugs have a relatively small effect on a lot of patients.negligible/minimal formal (=very small)The advertising campaign had a negligible effect on demand.immediate (=quick and sudden)The announcement had an immediate effect on stock prices.good Inflation can sometimes have some good effects on the economy.positive/beneficial (=good, or helping someone or something in some way)The incident had a very positive effect on his career.badWorking too hard was beginning to have a bad effect on my health.negative/detrimental (=bad or harmful) the negative effects of low rainfall harmful/damaging (=causing harm or damage to something or someone)the harmful effects of drinking too much alcoholSome of the effects can be quite damaging.visible/noticeable (=an effect that you can clearly see)He drank five beers, but they did not seem to have any visible effect on him.the adverse effects formal (=the bad effects)No one told them about the adverse effects of smoking marijuana.the long-term/short-term effect (=having an effect for a long or short time)Many boxers suffer with the long-term effects of punches to the head.a knock-on effect (=an effect that is caused by something that has happened before)The strike could have a knock-on effect at other airports.a cumulative effect (=the effect of many things happening one after the other)The cumulative effect of these policies will be to push up inflation.the desired effect (=the effect you want)His team talk had the desired effect because the team went on to win the game.the full effect (=the whole effect)We won’t know the full effect of the tax changes until the end of the financial year.a calming/soothing effect (=one that makes you feel less angry, excited, or nervous)His words seemed to have a calming effect on the crowd. THESAURUSeffect a change that is caused by an event, action etcThe people in this area are still suffering from the effects of the famine.The treatment had little or no effect.impact an effect that happens as a result of something important, especially a big and permanent effectChanges in technology have had a massive impact on the way we work.the environmental impact of industrial activityinfluence the effect that something has on people’s opinions or behaviour, or on how something developsAmerican television has had a big influence on popular culture in the west.His ideas had a lot of influence at the time.side effect an unwanted and unplanned effect that something has – used especially about drugs and medical treatmentCommon side effects of the drug may include headaches and muscle pains.after-effects British English, aftereffects American English bad effects that continue for a long time after the thing that caused themA traumatic experience can have severe psychological after-effects.the after-effects of the warrepercussions /ˌriːpəˈkʌʃəns $ -pər-/ the effects that happen later as a result of an event or decision, especially a range of effects that continue for a long timeThe scandal could have serious repercussions for her career.The judge’s decision is likely to have important repercussions for future cases of this kind.a knock-on effect British English used when something has an effect on something, which then has an effect on something elseHigher oil prices have a knock-on effect on other fuels.footprint the effect that human activities have on the environment, caused by using up its natural resources, pollution, waste etcBusinesses all over the world must attempt to reduce their environmental footprint.The house has a low carbon footprint (=it uses very little energy from carbon and therefore is good for the environment).
Examples from the Corpuseffect• Storni's use of rhythm creates an effect of tension in her poems.• All my efforts to persuade them were beginning to have an effect.• However, the establishment of cause and effect in education is notoriously difficult.• Any increase in fuel costs could have a bad effect on business.• the harmful effects of radiation• Patients with renal failure are, in effect, undergoing an osmotic diuresis since solute load per remaining functioning nephron is increased.• In effect, a personalized automated trading system can be created without having to go to any financial institution.• The death of a parent can have very serious and long-lasting effects on a child.• I tried using bleach to remove the stain, but without much effect.• I saw her later in my office because the Hyper. 30 had no effect.• I've been taking these pills for three days, but so far they've had no effect.• But they are concerned about the psychological effect the experience may have on the girls.• Sleeping on a contoured pillow will achieve the same effect if you prefer sleeping on foam rather than feathers.• At the same time, materials scientists launch an extensive search for other materials that might have similar effects.• I was starting to feel the effects of two nights without much sleep.• Gail was still recovering from the effects of her operation.• The study measured the effect of fertilizers on the size of crops.• The exploration of the effect of unconscious associations between words and ideas certainly takes eighteenth-century criticism into a new field.• The effects of the oil spill were devastating for wildlife.had ... effect• All had suffered devastating effects from the war.• Damage to a visual area in the brainstem, the superior colliculus, had the reverse effect.• The collapse of the Labour government had little effect on the Party's isolation.• But the public protests have had a profound effect on Adobe.• The evidence demanded a long time for Earth processes to have had any effect in carving mountains and accumulating sediment.• But he was wrong when he said it had no effect on him.• This annoyed the surgeon, who began to cut before the local or the sedative had taken effect.• That word-we-had a potent effect.effecteffect2 verb [transitive] formalCAUSE to make something happen SYN bring about Many parents lack confidence in their ability to effect change in their children’s behaviour. ► Do not confuse with the verb affect (=to have an effect on something).→ See Verb table
Examples from the Corpuseffect• But you can never effect a total kill.• There is no question that Clinton was the leader of the Great Group that effected his victory.• He proposed to make the army-the dependable support of the Constitution rather than the pawn of politicians to effect its overthrow.• The differentiation was effected, rather, by a different body of linguistic rules.• Fatigue is another factor that can effect the pods causing the end plates to bend or crack and lose contact.• But there is nothing to preclude a charge being brought under section 5 even though the arrest was not effected under the section.From Longman Business Dictionaryeffectef‧fect1 /ɪˈfekt/ noun1[countable, uncountable] the way in which an action, event, or person changes someone or somethingInflation is having a disastrous effect on the economy.2put/bring something into effect to make a plan or idea happenIt won’t be easy to put the changes into effect.3come into effect/take effect if a new arrangement, law, system etc comes into effect or takes effect, it officially startsThe new tax rates come into effect in April.4with immediate effect/with effect from starting to happen immediately, or from a particular dateMr Hoskins is appointed manager, with immediate effect.5effects [plural] formal the things that someone ownsInsurance also covers personal effects required during travel on company business.effecteffect2 verb [transitive] formal to make something happenYou must obtain your client’s approval of the estate agent’s fees before you effect payment of them.→ See Verb tableOrigin effect1 (1300-1400) Old French Latin effectus, past participle of efficere “to cause to happen”