From Longman Dictionary of Contemporary Englishdamagedam‧age1 /ˈdæmɪdʒ/ ●●● S3 W2 noun 1 physical harmDAMAGE [uncountable] physical harm that is done to something or to a part of someone’s body, so that it is broken or injureddamage to damage to property These chemicals have been found to cause serious environmental damage. There may be permanent brain damage. His eyesight suffered irreparable damage.2 emotional harmHARM/BE BAD FOR [uncountable] harm caused to someone’s emotions or mind The death of a parent can cause long-lasting psychological damage.3 bad effectHARM/BE BAD FORSPOIL [uncountable] a bad effect on somethingdamage to The damage to his reputation was considerable. The closure of the factory will cause severe damage to the local economy.damage limitation/control the attempts at political damage control during the scandal4 → damages5 → the damage is done6 → what’s the damage?COLLOCATIONSverbsdo damage Too much sun can do severe damage to your skin.cause damageWe surveyed the damage caused by the bomb.suffer/sustain damage formalShe has suffered damage to her hearing.repair the damageThe cost of repairing the damage could be around £300 million.prevent/avoid damageYoung trees need protecting to prevent damage from the wind.ADJECTIVES/NOUN + damageserious/severeThe earthquake caused severe damage to a number of buildings.extensive/widespread (=covering a large area)Because of the size of the bomb, the damage was extensive.permanent/irreparable/irreversible damage (=that cannot be repaired)By smoking for so long, she may have suffered irreversible damage to her health.minor damageFortunately, the fire caused only minor damage.physical damageThere is considerable evidence that the drug can cause physical damage.structural damage (=to the structure of a building)The building was checked for structural damage.environmental damageThe programme will concentrate on reducing environmental damage and pollution.fire/storm/flood etc damage (=caused by fire, storm, flood etc)The campsite suffered extensive flood damage.brain/liver/nerve etc damageIf you drink a lot of alcohol it can cause liver damage.accidental damage (=caused by an accident)The insurance covers you for accidental damage to your possessions while you are on holiday.criminal damage (=caused by someone committing a crime)The boy was charged with criminal damage after setting fire to his girlfriend’s house.
Examples from the Corpusdamage• Never look straight at the sun. Any damage to the retina could cause permanent blindness.• Gary Locke estimated losses totaling billions of dollars, as damage reports of highways, homes and businesses continued to trickle in.• Boeing Field in south Seattle also was closed, by damage to the runway, Sims said.• If you have an existing bedframe, always ask for advice, as the wrong combination may cause damage to the mattress.• The Multnomah County Courthouse was evacuated and employees were gathered in a park across the street while officials inspected for damage.• In truth Gene probably believes that the forces of darkness are gathering, but he also believes in damage limitation.• Endothelin induced gastric mucosal damage was carried out as described below.• The vandals did over £20.000 worth of damage.• Rubella is a serious infection, which can cause severe physical damage to the unborn child.• There is growing evidence of lasting psychological damage to children in broken families.• Acid rain has caused serious damage to the pine forests of northern Europe.• Mr Galston complains, and evidence of the damage is becoming clearer and clearer.• New ways of reducing the damage to the environment are urgently needed.• It will take many years to repair the damage caused by the floods.• Advice on any legal problem which arises in connection with the journey or holiday or with damage to your home.damage to• There was a lot of damage to both cars.• Community leaders are not sure how to fix the damage to the city's reputation.psychological damage• The scourge had abated, but psychological damage had been done, which was not so readily repaired.• Men can be passive without grave psychological damage only if the women are passive also.• On this occasion City accepted with relish the chances which came their way and inflicted serious psychological damage on their dejected opponents.• You should also be aware of the psychological damage you are capable of doing to yourself. damage limitation/control• It was to be an ugly demonstration; damage limitation was not on the agenda.• Calipari has spotted problems and implemented damage control.• In truth Gene probably believes that the forces of darkness are gathering, but he also believes in damage limitation.• Clinton also proved to be a master of damage control on the so-called character issues.• It is more like ordinary political damage control.• In that single photograph, Buckingham Palace's damage limitation exercise comes unstuck.• There are signs that these damaging limitations to free and open communication can be overcome.• It felt good to have something important and challenging to keep one busy, even if it was damage control.damagedamage2 ●●● S3 W3 verb [transitive] 1 DAMAGEINJUREto cause physical harm to something or to part of someone’s body insects that damage cropsbadly/severely/seriously damage Smoking can severely damage your health.► see thesaurus at harm2 HARM/BE BAD FORto have a bad effect on something or someone in a way that makes them weaker or less successful The changes in share values have damaged investor confidence.THESAURUSdamage to cause physical harm to something or someone, or have a bad effect on themSeveral buildings were damaged by the earthquake.The other car wasn’t damaged.The scandal could damage his career.harm to have a bad effect on somethingThey use chemicals that will harm the environment.The oil crisis could harm the economy.spoil to have a bad effect on something and make it less successful, enjoyable, useful etcWe didn’t let the rain spoil our holiday.Local people say the new buildings will spoil the view.vandalize to deliberately damage buildings, vehicles, or public propertyAll the public telephones in the area had been vandalized.sabotage /ˈsæbətɑːʒ/ to secretly damage machines or equipment so that they cannot be used, especially in order to harm an enemyThere is evidence that the airplane was sabotaged.tamper with something to deliberately and illegally damage or change a part of something in order to prevent it from working properlyThe car’s brakes had been tampered with.desecrate to damage a church or other holy placeThe church had been desecrated by vandals.deface /dɪˈfeɪs/ to deliberately spoil the appearance of something by writing on it, spraying paint on it etcSomeone had defaced the statue and painted it bright orange. → See Verb table
Examples from the Corpusdamage• Huge tidal waves swamped the town, damaging almost half the buildings.• Read in studio Fire has badly damaged an office block in Gloucester.• The building had been severely damaged by fire.• Both sexes will be damaged by the continuous disciplining that the rebellious and unsuccessful boys require.• The goods were damaged during transport.• Lewis damaged his knee in training and will not appear in the game.• The storm damaged hundreds of houses.• The company's future prospects will be badly damaged if this deal falls through.• He slipped on some ice and damaged ligaments in his knee.• This is likely to damage Scott's reputation even more.• When carrying out the operation, doctors have to take great care not to damage the delicate nerves endings.• Several recent events have damaged the government's public image.• It damages the nerves in the hands, feet or eyes.• The crisis has badly damaged the president's authority.• Don't put any hot things on the table - you'll damage the surface.• Smoking can seriously damage your health.badly/severely/seriously damage• But she did it so skillfully that again neither she nor her plane was seriously damaged.• He made several passes in the dark, shot down one B-24 and badly damaged a second.• Her own iron prow and cutwater were carried away, and she was otherwise badly damaged about the stern by the collision.• His right arm was severely damaged, and his young son also suffered in the attack.• During the allied bombings of 1943 it was very badly damaged and much of the internal work and stored archives were lost.• Obviously if the group is small, its chances of success may be badly damaged by one individual not joining.• Next door the Northern Bank was severely damaged with window frames jutting out of the cracked masonry.From Longman Business Dictionarydamagedam‧age1 /ˈdæmɪdʒ/ noun1[uncountable] a bad effect on something that makes it weaker or less successfuldamage toThe result of this policy will be severe damage to the British economy.2[uncountable] physical harm caused to somethinga fire which caused hundreds of pounds’ worth of damage to property3flood/storm/wind etc damageINSURANCE damage caused by a flood, storm etcThe shop suffered severe smoke damage.4damages [plural]LAW money that a court orders someone to pay to someone else for harming them or their property, or causing them financial lossThe group is facing claims for damages after supplying faulty goods.They are being sued for damages by clients who had been advised to invest in an insurance company that went bankrupt.A federal jury awarded damages for breach of contract. → actual damages → additional damages → civil damages → compensatory damages → consequential damages → exemplary damages → incidental damages → liquidated damages → money damages → nominal damages → non-economic damages → punitive damages → treble damages → unspecified damagesdamagedamage2 verb [transitive]1to cause physical harm to somethingBe careful not to damage the timer mechanism.goods damaged in transit2to have a bad effect on something in a way that makes it weaker or less successfulTaylor felt her reputation had been damaged by the newspaper article.→ See Verb tableOrigin damage1 (1200-1300) Old French dam “damage”, from Latin damnum; → DAMN4