From Longman Dictionary of Contemporary Englishforceforce1 /fɔːs $ fɔːrs/ ●●● S2 W1 noun 1 military a) [countable usually plural]GROUP OF PEOPLE a group of people who have been trained to do military work for a government or other organizationgovernment/military/defence etc forces The riots were suppressed by government forces. He strengthened US forces in the Gulf. a plan to disarm the rebel forces (=those fighting against the government) b) the forcesPM British English the army, navy, and air forcein the forces Both her sons are in the forces. c) nuclear/conventional forces nuclear weapons or ordinary weapons short-range nuclear forces → air force, armed forces, ground forces, → peacekeeping force at peacekeeping, → security forces at security(1), task force(2)2 military action [uncountable] military action used as a way of achieving your aims Peace cannot be imposed by force. The UN will allow the use of force against aircraft violating the zone.3 violence [uncountable]VIOLENT violent physical action used to get what you want The police used force to overpower the demonstrators.by force In the end he had to be thrown out of the house by force. They kicked the door down using sheer brute force.4 physical power [uncountable] the amount of physical power with which something moves or hits another thing → strengthforce of The force of the explosion blew out all the windows.with great/considerable/increasing etc force He raised his hand and struck her with terrifying force.5 natural power [countable, uncountable] a natural power or event the force of gravity powerful natural forces such as earthquakes, floods, and drought the forces of nature6 organized group [countable usually singular] a group of people who have been trained and organized to do a particular job the company’s sales force the quality of the teaching force → police force7 strong influence [countable]EFFECT/INFLUENCE something or someone who is powerful and has a lot of influence on the way things happenthe driving force (behind something/somebody) (=the person or thing that makes something happen) Betty Coward was the driving force behind the project.a force for change/peace/democracy etc (=someone or something that makes change, peace etc more likely to happen) Healthy competition is a force for innovation. He’s a quick and decisive player – a force to be reckoned with (=a person, team, company etc that influences what happens). The fall in prices was due to forces beyond their control. → market forces8 powerful effect [uncountable]EFFECT/INFLUENCE the powerful effect that something has on you Even after 30 years, the play has lost none of its force. the force of his personality 9 → join/combine forces (with somebody/something)10 → in force11 → come into force/bring something into force12 → by/through/out of force of habit13 → by/through force of circumstance(s)14 wind a) force 8/9/10 etcTM a unit for measuring the strength of the wind b) gale/hurricane force windDN extremely strong wind that does a lot of damage15 → the force16 → the forces of good/evil etc → labour force, tour de force, workforceCOLLOCATIONSADJECTIVES/NOUN + forcesthe armed forces (=a country’s military organizations, including the army, navy, and air force)Israel refused to withdraw its armed forces from the area. American/British/French etc forcesSeveral battles took place involving American forces.government forces (=soldiers fighting for the government)Government forces reportedly shot dead 300 unarmed civilians.security forces (=who protect a country against people who are fighting the government)The government claimed that the security forces had destroyed the rebels’ headquarters.rebel forces (=who are fighting against the government)The village was attacked by rebel forces.military forcesHe served with the military forces during the war.a defence forceShould the European Union have its own defence force?enemy forcesEnemy forces now occupy substantial areas of the city.a peacekeeping forceA large UN peacekeeping force is being assembled.special forces (=who are specially trained to fight against guerilla or terrorist groups)Special forces were employed to support the local army.phrasesbe in the forcesHer husband is in the forces.verbsjoin the forces (=become a soldier, sailor etc)He was too young to join the forces when the war broke out.withdraw your forcesExpecting the Allies to attack again, he began to withdraw his forces eastward.
Examples from the Corpusforce• But when you get some one who can really play them, they sure are a force to be reckoned with.• the Air Force• Manuel Bonett, head of the armed forces.• Her husband tried to get the children back by force.• Centrifugal force can be greater than the force of gravity.• Most market professionals agree that the tax-deferred funds are a major force behind the exponential growth in stock prices.• Instead, there is a narrow vision of a world dominated by market forces.• The use of physical force by teachers tended to promote violent behaviour by pupils.• Barnes is a member of the St. Paul Police Force.• Rebel forces are seeking to overthrow the government.• the company's sales force• What a display of grandeur and sheer force of will!• The United States is one of dozens of nations that provide troops for the 2,400-member Sinai force.• The college must cut 10% of its teaching force for the fall semester.• They occur in areas where the Earth's crust is subjected to tensional forces, trying to pull it apart.• The force of public opinion stopped the highway project.• The force of the explosion shook buildings several blocks away.• The police do not use force when arresting people unless it's absolutely necessary.• I had to use force to get the window open.• We want to end the demonstration without force.the use of force• These help to reinforce the hinge side of your doors against the use of force.• Today's Soviet leaders are the products of a long-standing tradition of thinking about war and the use of force.• When, in November, it blessed the use of force to achieve this goal, the fanfare was forgivable.• Perhaps most important is the growing chance for miscalculation that accompanies any policy involving the use of force.• The UN tries to limit the use of force in conflicts.• This explains Albright's having ruled out the use of force.• Yet as Dunkers they could not in conscience support the use of force or pay disrespect to the Crown.• The maintenance of the system of slavery through the use of force was a primary problem of colonial defense.• Clearly the current situation in which the use of force is illegal except in self-defence is inadequate.brute force• Their only ultimate recourse is to deal with each other by brute force.• By brute force they began to pull the raft sideways away from the danger.• In the analogue world, the reshaping of a page of information or a physical object requires some exercise of brute force.• Sometimes you have to use sheer brute force to get these things open.• This has been a war fought more with technology than brute force.• Teravainen belonged to the brute force school; off the tee, he was as long as anybody.• In the short term this brute force approach appears to be the best method of incorporating linguistic knowledge into computers.• Even his strong-man routine seems devoid of any intelligence or style and focuses, instead, upon brute force and muscle.• Was brute force and intimidation all they knew?• With brute force techniques ... they do achieve about the same end result as we do with much more sophisticated techniques. with great/considerable/increasing etc force• Bringing his right fist back over his shoulder he punched Tommy in the face with considerable force.• Denice jabs it with considerable force into our forehead.• He saw a figure moving towards him, and felt himself pushed, with great force, into a wall.• The urge to acquire interesting and possibly valuable things is widespread and can strike unexpectedly and sometimes with great force.• There is a ridiculous nature-boy sentimentalism that with increasing force is taking over.forces of nature• The shape and size of creatures is determined by the many fundamental forces of Nature.• Since then, they have represented the darker, subterranean forces of nature.• It was one of man's more successful attempts at curbing the forces of nature.• But they were not willing to see one acre of irrigated land succumb to the forces of nature, regardless of cost.• This tiny camp in the wilderness looked very lonely, very vulnerable to the forces of nature ranged silently around it.• They will cross it only if the undirected forces of nature happen to lead them across.• The shortages and panics are not the result of unpredictable forces of nature or freely functioning markets.• There was already by now a political and religious system, whose primitive beliefs deified the various forces of nature.teaching force• Creating a teaching force which is adequate to the rapidly growing system has been another problem.• It could be that this development marks the beginning of a teaching force which is professional in reality as well as in name.• I am going to suggest a teaching force composed of three essential parts.• This saves on training facilities and teacher trainers and also helps fill the gaps in the ranks of the existing teaching force.• This leads to a final question that we ought to ask in reference to the three-part teaching force I have proposed.• To do so effectively requires a commitment from the teaching force - from headteacher to probationer.• Rather it points to the fact that there has been a subtle change in the composition of the teaching force.• The teaching force then has the task of meeting the criteria established by these guidelines. forces beyond ... control• War, rearranged borders, a country assembled and disassembled by forces beyond their control.• Our dreams are threatened by forces beyond our control.• It is difficult to resist the conclusion that after 1208 Innocent had been outmanoeuvred by certain forces beyond his control.• In a sense, owning the benefits your organization achieves is the opposite of blaming consequences on forces beyond your control.forceforce2 ●●● S2 W1 verb [transitive] 1 make somebody do something to make someone do something they do not want to do → persuadeforce somebody to do something Government troops have forced the rebels to surrender. Due to the high cost of borrowing, many companies have been forced to close.force yourself to do something I had to force myself to get up this morning.force somebody/something into (doing) something women who are forced into arranged marriages Bad health forced him into taking early retirement.2 make somebody/something movePUSH [always + adverb/preposition] to make someone or something move in a particular direction or into a different position, especially through or using great strength SYN push Strong winds forced the ship off course. Firemen tried to enter the building, but were forced back by the flames. She tried to keep the door shut but the man forced it open.3 → force your way through/into etc something4 make something happen to make something happen or change, especially more quickly than planned or expected the unfortunate events that forced his resignation We need to force the pace on alternative energy policies.force prices/interest rates etc down/up The effect will be to increase unemployment and force down wages.5 → force a door/lock/window6 → force the issue7 → force somebody’s hand8 → force a smile/laugh etcGRAMMAR: Comparisonforce• You force someone to do something: The robbers forced him to hand over the money.• Force is often used in the passive: The minister was forced to resign because of the scandal.make• You make someone do something: The robbers made him hand over the money. ✗Don’t say: make someone to do somethingcompel • You compel someone to do something: The court can compel witnesses to give evidence.• Compel is very often used in the passive: He became seriously ill and was compelled to retire two years later.oblige• You say that someone is obliged to do something. Oblige is almost always used in the passive: Hotels are obliged by law to install smoke alarms.THESAURUSforce to make someone do something they do not want to do. Used when people or situations make you do somethingThey were beaten and forced to confess to crimes they had not committed.The drought forced millions of farmers to sell their cattle.make to force someone to do something by using pressure, threats, or violence. Make somebody do something is more common than force somebody to do something in everyday EnglishHer parents disapproved of Alex and they made her stop seeing him.Two men with guns made the staff hand over the money.pressure (also pressurize British English) to try to force someone to do something by making them feel that they should do itSome employers pressure their staff into working very long hours.She felt they were trying to pressurize her into getting married.blackmail to force someone to give you money or do what you want by threatening to tell embarrassing secrets about themShe tried to blackmail him with photographs of them together at the hotel.compel formal to force someone to do something using official power or authority. Also used when someone has to do something because of their situationThe town was surrounded and compelled to surrender.I felt compelled to offer them some kind of explanation.You are compelled by law to carry an ID card.coerce /kəʊˈɜːs $ ˈkoʊɜːrs/ formal to force someone to do something by threatening themLocal people were coerced into joining the rebel army.be obliged to do something formal if someone is obliged to do something, they must do it because it is the law or the rule, or because of the situation they are inYou are not obliged to say anything which may harm your defence in court. They were obliged to sell the land. → force something ↔ back → force something ↔ down → force something on/upon somebody → force something ↔ out of somebody→ See Verb table
Examples from the Corpusforce• The Master tried both persuasion and threats but ... was compelled at length to send for a constable and resort to force.• The economy has forced a lot of companies out of business.• She tried to force her feet into the shoes but they were too small.• Her parents are trying to force her into marrying a man she hardly knows.• Thieves had tied him up and forced him to lie on the floor.• It infected his spine and forced him to spend months in bed.• And to know these, the artist cannot force his own intentions upon nature.• I had never thought of buying an insurance policy, and I wasn't going to be forced into it by some young salesman.• Here, girls are often forced into prostitution because they have no other means of earning money.• Some idiot forced Laura off the road yesterday.• Eddie feels that he was forced out of his job in order to make way for a younger man.• Women's organizations are trying to force the government to appoint more women to senior positions.• Firefighters had to force the lock.• I finally managed to force the package through the small letterbox.• In theory, the power crisis could force the state to work together more.• All the hostages were forced to hand over their passports.• Often they were forced to leap blindly into ravines five or ten feet deep.• If forced to resign, get a good book deal.• To round off his day of despair Button was forced to retire with an exhaust failure six laps from home.• They had so little money that they were forced to sell the farm.• She claimed was forced to take part in the robbery by her husband.• They were halfway up the mountain, when the weather became so bad that they were forced to turn back.• When the information was slow in coming, the announcers were forced to use their imaginations to fill in the details.• You don't have to come if you don't want to. Nobody's forcing you.• If you don't comply I'm afraid we'll have to force you.force somebody/something into (doing) something• That has forced buyers into a market itching for some payback.• There is no attempt to force them into a mould of correct knowledge.• But she forced the Volvo into first, the engine screaming as she drove fifteen or twenty yards down the road.• Colin hated the way he inspected the rag before folding the contents into the centre and forcing it into his trouser pocket.• He forced his breath into laughs.• Both men and women must also look for paid work and many have been forced to migrate into the cities.• All magic is dangerous and the titanic forces drawn into the realm of Ulthuan are more dangerous than any other.• In 31 states Perot won more than 20 percent of the vote, and he forced Clinton into third place in Utah.forced ... open• The other had been forced open.• She forced her eyes open, and at once her heart was pounding.• I forced my eyes open and woke up.• I forced myself to open my fingers, to relax my vigilance, to fall asleep.• The raider forced him to open the safe and fled with cash.• Secluded rear doors are especially vulnerable: they are often forced open with a simple well-aimed kick.force prices/interest rates etc down/up• The second is that the spending increase leads to the economy overheating and thus forces interest rates up.From Longman Business Dictionaryforceforce1 /fɔːsfɔːrs/ noun1[countable] a group of people who have been trained and organized for a particular purposeOur division has expanded its sales force (=the people in a company who sell the company’s products) to 160.2in forceLAW if a law or rule is in force, it exists and must be obeyedThese regulations have been in force since 1997.New EU directivescome into force (=start to operate) in April.3[countable usually singular] something or someone that has a strong influence on an activity or the way events developShe is the driving force (=person or thing that has the strongest influence on the way things happen) behind the group’s creation.The group is certainly a force to be reckoned with (=has a lot of power and influence) in the publishing industry.4market forces [plural]ECONOMICS the way that the behaviour of buyers and sellers affects the levels of SUPPLY AND DEMAND in a particular market, especially when the government does nothing to change thisBy ending the electricity monopoly, market forces rather than state utilities will set prices.Whether there is enough demand to sustain all of the car manufacturers is a question we will have toleave to market forces (=allow market forces to take effect so that the market works in the most efficient way).5[uncountable] influence or authorityThe City’s code of practice does not have the force of law. (=the same authority as the law)forceforce2 verb [transitive]1if a situation forces you to do something, it makes you do it, even though you do not want toforce somebody to do somethingMassive debts have forced them to close the store.We were forced to raise prices because of increased costs.2to make something happen against the wishes of the people who are affectedThe imposition of VAT would force the closure of 20% of regional newspapers.fears of a forced takeover → force something → down → force something → up→ See Verb tableOrigin force1 (1200-1300) Old French Latin fortis “strong”