From Longman Dictionary of Contemporary Englishcloseclose1 /kləʊz $ kloʊz/ ●●● S1 W1 verb 1 shut [intransitive, transitive]SHUT/CLOSE to shut something in order to cover an opening, or to become shut in this way SYN shut OPP open → closed Would you mind if I closed the window? She closed the curtains. Let me do the car door – it won’t close properly. Beth closed her eyes and tried to sleep. She heard the door close behind her.2 move parts together [intransitive, transitive] to move the parts of something together so that there is no longer a space between them Anne closed her book and stood up.3 shut for period of time [intransitive, transitive] (also close up)SHUT/CLOSE if a shop or building closes, or you close it, it stops being open to the public for a period of time OPP open SYN shut British English → closed The shops close at six. Harry usually closes the store completely when he goes on vacation.4 NO LONGER EXISTstop operating [intransitive, transitive] (also close down)SHUT/CLOSE if a company, shop etc closes, or you close it, it stops operating permanently SYN shut down, → closed We have reluctantly decided to close the factory. The shop closed down some time last year.5 end [intransitive, transitive]FINISH/COME TO AN END to end or to make something end, especially in a particular wayclose something with/by etc I will now close the meeting by asking you to join me in a final toast.close with The movie closes with an emotional reunion in Prague.closing remarks (=something you say at the end of a speech) In her closing remarks, the judge urged the jury to consider the facts only. 6 → close an account7 FINANCIAL/ECONOMICin money markets [intransitive always + adverb/preposition]BFS to be worth a particular amount of money at the end of a day’s trading (=the buying and selling of shares) on the stock exchangeclose at The dollar closed at 64p against the pound.close up/down Their shares closed 27p up (=worth 27p more).8 → close a deal/sale/contract etc9 offer finishes [intransitive]FINISH/COME TO AN END to finish on a particular date SYN end Our special offer closes on June 3.10 make distance/difference smaller [intransitive, transitive]NEAR to make the distance or difference between two things smaller an attempt to close the gap between the rich and poorclose on The other car was closing on us fast.11 make something unavailable [intransitive, transitive]REDUCE to make taking part in an activity or using an opportunity no longer possible → closed Bidding for the painting will close on Friday. The country has now closed its borders to all foreign nationals (=will not let foreigners in). The legislation aims to close a lot of legal loopholes.12 → be closed13 → close your doors (to somebody)14 → close your mind to/against something15 hold something [intransitive always + adverb/preposition, transitive]HOLD if someone’s hands, arms etc close around something, or are closed around something, they hold it firmlyclose (something) around/round/over etc something Her left hand closed over his arm. She closed her hand tightly around her bag. 16 wound [intransitive, transitive] (also close up)CUREHEALTHY if a wound closes, or if someone closes it, the edges grow together again or are sewn together The surgeon closed the incision neatly.17 → close ranks18 → close the book on something → closing date, closing time, → close/shut the door on something at door1(9), → close your eyes to something at eye1(16)GrammarClose belongs to a group of verbs where the same noun can be the subject of the verb or its object. • You can say: She closed the door. In this sentence, ‘the door’ is the object of close.• You can say: The door closed. In this sentence, ‘the door’ is the subject of close.THESAURUSclose to stop being open, or to make something stop being open. You use close and shut especially about your eyes, your mouth, a door, a window, or a containerCan I close the window?Her eyes slowly closed.He closed the door gently, so as not to wake the children.shut to close something. Shut sometimes has a feeling of doing something quickly and firmly, whereas close sounds more carefulHe shut the door with a loud bang.Shut your eyes and go to sleep. slam to close a door or lid quickly and noisily, especially because you are angryShe left the room, slamming the door behind her.draw the curtains to close curtains by pulling them across a windowThe curtains were still drawn at ten o'clock in the morning.put the lid on something to close a container by putting a lid onto itDid you put the lid on the cookie jar?seal to close something so that no air or water can get in or outIn this experiment, the chamber must be completely sealed. → close down → close in → close something ↔ off → close on somebody/something → close something ↔ out → close up → close with somebody/something→ See Verb table
Examples from the Corpusclose• The first shock was that the mill closed.• The legislation closes a lot of loopholes in the tax law.• Close all applications before shutting down your computer.• The pension fund was broke, the mines were closed, and it looked like the moon.• Most of the stores close at 6:30.• It's closing down ... declared a fire safety risk ... only a few years after it was reopened.• After 85 years, the local newspaper closed down last month.• Ann closed her book and stood up.• When he finishes his supper, the boy tucks the lunch box back into a shopping bag and closes his eyes.• The hotel is closed in the winter.• Anheuser-Busch even threatened to close its St Louis plant if the tax measure passed, though nobody believed that.• The special offer for tickets closes June 3.• The play opens Monday and is scheduled to close March 20.• WalMart shares closed only 4 cents down.• The door closed silently behind Mariko.• Hundreds of timber mills have been closed since World War II.• Close the curtains - it's getting dark.• She took the necklace out of the box and closed the lid.• Do you mind if I close the window?• What time does the mall close tonight?• The cut should close up within a few days.• The novel closes when the family reunites in Prague.• Okay, close your eyes and make a wish.closed ... eyes• He put his hands behind his head and closed his eyes.• Hitched horses in front of the saloons shivered and closed their eyes.• I got into bed and closed my eyes.• She hit the other one, and then sat stock-still; tears ran from her closed eyes.• He closed his eyes and groaned.• He pulled his awkward cloak about his shoulders and closed his eyes, emptying his head of preoccupations.• If she closed her eyes she could see again those glittering lights and hear the gay, entrancing music.• I closed my eyes, trying to make the chaos outside a dream.closing remarks• Mr. Brooke I am grateful to the hon. Gentleman for his remarks, and not least his closing remarks.• Mr. Brooke I am most grateful to my right hon. Friend for his kind closing remarks.• In his closing remarks , Merrill said that the plan "reflects the hard work of many people." close up/down• The stock rebounded somewhat today, closing up 1 / 4 at 54 12.• Adventure giants Atlas, alas, have closed down.• It was very kind of you to look at me when you were ready to close up.• The stock prices of both airlines closed down Monday.• Imprinting and cell differentiation both involve the closing down of genes but the mechanisms are evidently distinct.• The service will close down on 5 September and will be replaced by a metered service.• Cinder blocks have closed up the door and windows.• Or maybe they had closed down the Project and abandoned him.close the gap• He never had a chance, and he never closed the gap.• Over the final 40 metres Louise closed the gap and was just first to the touch in 1.14.55.• Like Schüssler Fiorenza, Phyllis Trible seeks to close the gap between past and present.• Gretna, meanwhile, are hoping to close the gap on leaders Murton by beating Ferryhill at Raydale Park.• But it has closed the gap slightly.• Moors are closing the gap steadily on the leading teams, and three points today could lift them three places into fifth.• Boughton Hall closed the gap with an eight wicket triumph at Huyton.• Finally the research vessel began to sidle sideways towards us, using its bow thrusters to close the gap with Hsu Fu.closed ... borders• Neighbouring countries have closed their borders. closeclose2 /kləʊs $ kloʊs/ ●●● S1 W1 adjective (comparative closer, superlative closest) 1 nearNEAR not far from someone or something SYN near If you need to buy bread or milk, the closest shop is about a mile away.close to Susan sat on a chair close to the window. I don’t mind where we go on vacation as long as it’s close to a beach. His eyes were small and close together. There are several accounts of dolphins living in close proximity to humans (=close to humans). The victim had been shot at close range (=from very close).2 near in timeSOON near to something in timeclose to It was close to 1:15 a.m.close together Our birthdays are quite close together.3 likely to happenPROBABLY seeming very likely to happen or very likely to do something soonclose to doing something The two countries are close to signing a peace agreement. We’re close to clinching the deal.close to death/tears/despair etc The old dog could barely whimper and seemed close to death. The prosecution’s main witness was close to tears as she described the assault.4 LIKE somebody OR somethinglike/love if two people are close, they like or love each other very much My brother and I are very close.close to I felt closer to Rob that evening than ever before. Fiona and I have always been close friends.5 similarLIKE/SIMILAR very similar to each otherclose to When I saw Henry with another woman I felt something close to jealousy. Fitt was the closest thing to a socialist in the party. Their newest model bears a close resemblance to (=is very similar to) that of their rival competitor.► see thesaurus at similar 6 CAREFULcareful [usually before noun] looking at, thinking about, or watching something very carefully → closelytake/have/get a close look (at something) She lifted up Jenny’s silver medallion to take a closer look.keep a close watch/eye on (=watch someone or something very carefully) Don’t worry, I’ll keep a close eye on the kids. You could have improved your answers by closer attention to detail.7 number/amountLIKE/SIMILAR if a number or amount is close to another number or amount, it is not much higher or lower than it We don’t know the exact figures, but about 10,000 might be a close approximation (=close to the actual figure).close to Inflation is close to 7 percent.8 competition/election etcALMOST finishing or being played, fought etc with both sides almost equal It was a close game that could have gone either way.a close second/third etc (=very nearly first, second etc) The result is too close to call (=so close that it is impossible to know who will win).9 → close relation/relative10 very nearly badALMOST used when you have only just managed to avoid something bad, dangerous, or embarrassing happening ‘Phew, that was close, ’ Frank said as he swerved to avoid the cyclist.a close call/thing/shave (=a situation in which something dangerous, embarrassing etc almost happens) United had a close shave when Liverpool almost scored.11 almost very nearly getting, finding, or achieving somethingclose to At this point, the investigators were closer to the truth than they realized. 12 → keep in close contact/touch13 work/talk togetherFRIENDLY relating to a situation in which people work well with each other or talk to each other often He retained very close links with France throughout his life. What we need now is closer cooperation between the club and supporters.14 with little spaceKEEP somebody IN A PLACE with little or no space around something or between things The horses are always eager for exercise after the close confinement of the stables. The shoe is a close fit (=there is no space around the foot). I find it difficult to read such close print (=with letters printed so close together).15 → close/you’re close/that’s close16 → close to the bone17 → close, but no cigar18 → too close for comfort19 → close to home20 → at close quarters21 weatherAIR British English uncomfortably warm because there seems to be no air The weather that night was hot and close, with a hint of thunder in the distance.22 unwilling to talk about something [not before noun]SECRET unwilling to tell people about something SYN secretiveclose about You’re very close about your work, aren’t you?23 unwilling to spend money [not before noun]GENEROUS not generousclose with You won’t get a penny out of Jack – he’s very close with his money. 24 → a close shave25 → close work26 → close vowel —closeness noun [uncountable] She had never had the physical or emotional closeness that she needed. → play your cards close to your chest at card1(14)COLLOCATIONS – Meaning 6: looking at, thinking about, or watching something very carefullyphrasestake/get a close lookShe moved forward to take a close look at the painting.keep a close eye/watch on somebody/something (=watch someone or something carefully)They have to keep a close eye on their finances.nounsa close examinationA closer examination of the facts soon solved the mystery.a close studyTheir research involved a close study of two communities.close attentionYou will lose weight if you combine exercise with close attention to your diet.close scrutiny (=careful and thorough examination of someone or something)The investigation included close scrutiny of the images on CCTV.close inspection (=looking at someone or something in detail)Closer inspection revealed that the rocks were from an earlier period.close supervision (=constantly making sure that someone does things in the correct way)Initially there will be close supervision of the trainee.
Examples from the Corpusclose• Dad and I have always been very close.• The grocery store on Victory Boulevard is closer.• We haven't finished remodeling the kitchen yet, but we're close.• My sister and I used to argue a lot, but now we're very close.• Our job requires close contact with the sales manager.• What we need now is closer cooperation between the sales and marketing staffs.• On closer examination of the facts it became clear that the boy was innocent.• We have always been a close family.• It turns out that Julie is a close friend of my cousin Kelly.• Is there some one he would listen to, such as a close friend or relative?• Rosen has worked politically for Kennedy since his 1980 presidential primary run and developed a close friendship with the senator.• It is important that the close link with the local authority remains.• Take a close look at this photograph.• Mom and I are a lot closer now than we were when I was a teenager.• The school encourages close partnerships between teachers and parents.• Bormann followed the simple principle of always remaining in the closest proximity to the source of all grace and favor.• Snowden's close reasoning and unerring instinct for words were allied with Maxton's humour and Churchill's daring.• Federal Trade Commission officials would not comment on the deal, but are expected by industry experts to give it close scrutiny.• But the Gulf of California is closer than you think, and currently under assault by everything from pollution to poaching.• She was never very close to her stepmother.• I'm still very close to my parents.• Are they in good condition, especially those close to the house?• Our birthdays are close together.close to• The government spends close to $100 billion a year on education.• Inflation is now close to 6%.• We drove close on 500 miles Saturday.• It was close on midnight by the time they got home.• This activity was close to a couple of shops which sold animal furs.• There must be close to a hundred people in the hall.• She also has remained close to another ex-Cardinal, Lasers center Anita Kaplan.• Barnes was close to death.• He was close to MacDonald and trusted him to respect the constitution.• By the time we left, it was close to midnight.• I'm very close to my brothers.• Therefore, the choice of method depends on which assumption is closest to reality.• Which of them is close to shops?• Do you have any shoes that are closer in color to the bridesmaid's dress?• He jogged rapidly keeping close to the hedgerows and avoiding the open fields.• Of these, Corinne came the closest to the Rooseveltian ideal.• Amy's house is close to the school.• Even Plato was closer to the truth than you and yours, Gilbert.close to• This activity was close to a couple of shops which sold animal furs.• She also has remained close to another ex-Cardinal, Lasers center Anita Kaplan.• He was close to MacDonald and trusted him to respect the constitution.• Therefore, the choice of method depends on which assumption is closest to reality.• Which of them is close to shops?• He jogged rapidly keeping close to the hedgerows and avoiding the open fields.• Of these, Corinne came the closest to the Rooseveltian ideal.• Even Plato was closer to the truth than you and yours, Gilbert. close to doing something• Even Plato was closer to the truth than you and yours, Gilbert.• He jogged rapidly keeping close to the hedgerows and avoiding the open fields.• He was close to MacDonald and trusted him to respect the constitution.• Of these, Corinne came the closest to the Rooseveltian ideal.• She also has remained close to another ex-Cardinal, Lasers center Anita Kaplan.• Therefore, the choice of method depends on which assumption is closest to reality.• This activity was close to a couple of shops which sold animal furs.• Which of them is close to shops?close to• This activity was close to a couple of shops which sold animal furs.• She also has remained close to another ex-Cardinal, Lasers center Anita Kaplan.• He was close to MacDonald and trusted him to respect the constitution.• Therefore, the choice of method depends on which assumption is closest to reality.• Which of them is close to shops?• He jogged rapidly keeping close to the hedgerows and avoiding the open fields.• Of these, Corinne came the closest to the Rooseveltian ideal.• Even Plato was closer to the truth than you and yours, Gilbert.close to• This activity was close to a couple of shops which sold animal furs.• She also has remained close to another ex-Cardinal, Lasers center Anita Kaplan.• He was close to MacDonald and trusted him to respect the constitution.• Therefore, the choice of method depends on which assumption is closest to reality.• Which of them is close to shops?• He jogged rapidly keeping close to the hedgerows and avoiding the open fields.• Of these, Corinne came the closest to the Rooseveltian ideal.• Even Plato was closer to the truth than you and yours, Gilbert. take/have/get a close look (at something)• Clare Moynihan takes a closer look.• I cautiously take a closer look.• I picked up the binoculars to take a closer look.• The killer whale was in motion, swimming slowly around the raft to take a closer look.• Three or four weeks later, you can take a close look.• They probably took a closer look as its shares fell to just over $ 1 last month.• Take a closer look at the warning labels surrounding you on a daily basis.• When he took a closer look he was horrified.close to• This activity was close to a couple of shops which sold animal furs.• She also has remained close to another ex-Cardinal, Lasers center Anita Kaplan.• He was close to MacDonald and trusted him to respect the constitution.• Therefore, the choice of method depends on which assumption is closest to reality.• Which of them is close to shops?• He jogged rapidly keeping close to the hedgerows and avoiding the open fields.• Of these, Corinne came the closest to the Rooseveltian ideal.• Even Plato was closer to the truth than you and yours, Gilbert.a close second/third etc• An irresistible attraction to destructive men ran a close second.• Etzioni and Ward a close second and Nisbet and Fontana less promising in these selected books by them.• Business is a close second in its neglect of children, leaving workers without sufficient family time.• Sea bream, with shallot and red wine sauce, comes a close second in the restaurant.• Uncle Nick came a close second, Robin and Jenny joint thirds; thinking of them all, Ruth ached with homesickness.• Neil Young, whose eccentric recording diversions have made him a marketing nightmare, is a close second, though.• Acid House comes a close second to football fans in the tabloids' top ten of moral panics.• Put to the test, we suspect the anti-bat vote would be a close second to the anti-rat faction. that was close• Hoffman threw a 1-0 pitch that was close, but West ruled it a ball.• The three space directions and imaginary time would form a space-time that was closed in on itself, without boundaries or edges.• The guard began to search the pile of leaves where we were hiding, but then got distracted by a noise from the house. "Phew, that was close!" said John. "C'mon, let's get out of here!"• In addition, I called an agency that was close to landing me a job and informed it that I was employed.• She looked from Wycliffe to Lucy Lane and back again with apprehension that was close to panic.close to• This activity was close to a couple of shops which sold animal furs.• She also has remained close to another ex-Cardinal, Lasers center Anita Kaplan.• He was close to MacDonald and trusted him to respect the constitution.• Therefore, the choice of method depends on which assumption is closest to reality.• Which of them is close to shops?• He jogged rapidly keeping close to the hedgerows and avoiding the open fields.• Of these, Corinne came the closest to the Rooseveltian ideal.• Even Plato was closer to the truth than you and yours, Gilbert.close links• There were close links between the alchemists and the gnostics, and for the gnostics the picture was bleaker still.• Mercator's career exemplifies the close links which existed between mathematical theorists, teachers, and instrument-makers at this time.• He is exploring closer links with Diocesan and other denominational youth bodies which overlap in their aims.• The Centre aims to maintain a strong focus on those questions affecting the voluntary sector and to maintain close links with it.• This is formally independent of the Labour Party, but has close links with its leaders.• More recently, philosophy has had very close links with mathematics and artificial intelligence.• A new view of war, albeit one which had close links with past ideas, was gradually emerging. closeclose3 /kləʊs $ kloʊs/ ●●● S2 W2 adverb 1 FINISH/COME TO AN ENDnot far away SYN near Come a little closer, so you can see better. Her father lives quite close by. They were sitting close together on the couch. A variety of good restaurants are close at hand (=very near). James heard footsteps close behind him. Ronnie sped off, with his brother’s car following close behind.stay/keep close We must all stay close.hold/draw somebody close (=hold someone against your body) He drew her close to him.► see thesaurus at near2 → close up/up close/close to3 → close on something/close to something4 → come close (to doing something)5 → a close run thing6 → close on the heels of something7 NEARnear to the surface of something An electric razor doesn’t really shave as close as a blade.8 → run somebody close → sail close to the wind at sail1(6)
Examples from the Corpusclose• She was holding her baby close.• The police questioned him closely about his involvement in the robbery.• For that, you would sit behind the basket, seeing half the game up close.• Close by a couple were kissing, holding each other close to ward off the cold wind that had sprung up.• There were close to a hundred.• Living close to overhead electric power lines causes health hazards.• Anyone who works close to the darker side of human nature can not help taking on board some of the pain.close by• Her parents live close by.closeclose4 /kləʊz $ kloʊz/ ●○○ noun [singular] formalEND the end of an activity or of a period of time At the close of trade, the Dow Jones index was 1.92 points down. The monsoon season was drawing to a close (=ending). The event came to a close (=finished) with a disco. Finally the meeting was brought to a close (=ended).
Examples from the Corpusclose• Exactly when the Gingrich case will come to a close has become a matter of bitter dispute.• John Champagne and Bob Guadiana grabbed their chance to lead the way as 1991 drew to a close.• Several hours later, the meeting drew to a close and the board members filed out of the room.• Fran lives at 37 Appian Close.• Since then, Service Corp. stock has zipped up from 44 to 47 at the close of trading last week.• At the close of trading on the stock market, Ciena shares were up to $37.• The beginning of April usually marks the close of the skiing season.• I remember the close of each of those weekend nights as a prolonged farewell.drawing to a close• With the announcement of Daimler, the 77-year existence of Fokker appears to be drawing to a close.• Adam began to move restlessly in his chair, assuming that the proceedings were now drawing to a close.• But because the moon is eclipsed, the stage drawing to a close is an ultra-important one.• Her own menstrual cycle, including its uncomfortable drawing to a close, had been strictly her own affair.• It was six o'clock and at Larksoken Power Station, the weekly interdepartmental meeting was drawing to a close.• But a change was in the air, a season was drawing to a close.• My time with Stark was drawing to a close.• The government had published the employment White Paper, and the war was drawing to a close.closeclose5 /kləʊs $ kloʊs/ noun British English 1 [singular]TTR used in street names for a road that has only one way in or out Take a left turn into Brown’s Close.2 [countable usually singular] the area and buildings surrounding a cathedral
Examples from the Corpusclose• Lying in a cradle close by are two babies.• I remember the close of each of those weekend nights as a prolonged farewell.From Longman Business Dictionarycloseclose1 /kləʊzkloʊz/ verb1[intransitive, transitive]COMMERCE (also close down) if a company, shop etc closes or someone closes it, it stops operating permanentlyWe have reluctantly decided to close the factory.Banks are closing down branches by the hundred.2[intransitive, transitive]COMMERCE if a shop or building closes or someone closes it, it stops being open to the public for a period of timeThe shops close at 6.3[intransitive]FINANCE if a share or currency closes at a particular value, it is worth that amount at the end of the day’s trading on a particular marketAmazon shares closed down at $29.56 on the NASDAQ.The pound closed up slightly at $1.90130.4[intransitive]MARKETING to finish on a particular dateSpecial offer closes June 3.5COMMERCE close a deal/sale to reach the point in a deal or sale where everyone involved agrees to itThe objective of the negotiation phase is to close the deal.He had to lower his price in order to close the sale. 6BANKING close an account to stop having a particular account with a bankMr Samuels agreed to close the account and transfer the money to a company account.7ACCOUNTING close the books to calculate the financial results at the end of a particular accounting periodOn Friday the company closed the books on its fiscal first quarter.8FINANCE close (out) a position if an investor or dealer on a financial market closes a position, they buy or sell the stocks, shares, currencies etc that they have agreed to buy or sell, even if this means that they lose moneyIf a dealer buys a futures contract and its price declines, he buys another at a lower price rather than closing out his position. → close something → out→ See Verb tablecloseclose2 noun [singular]FINANCE the end of the day’s activity, for example on the stockmarket or in a bankAt the close, the Dow Jones Industrial Average had climbed 17.49.The dividend was payable to shareholders on the Register of Members at close of business on 7th May.Origin close1 (1200-1300) Old French clos, past participle of clore “to close”, from Latin claudere close2 (1200-1300) Old French clos, from Latin clausus, past participle of claudere; → CLOSE1