From Longman Dictionary of Contemporary Englishworkwork1 /wɜːk $ wɜːrk/ ●●● S1 W1 verb 1 do a job for money [intransitive]WORK/DO WORK to do a job that you are paid for Where do you work? Many young people in the area have never worked. The injury means he’ll probably never work again.work for He works for a law firm.work at/in I work at the university.work as She works as a consultant for a design company.work in industry/education/publishing etc The studies were undertaken by people working in education.work part-time/full-time I work part-time in a library.• You work in a city or area: He works in Manhattan.• You work in a type of place such as a bank, shop, or factory: She works in a library.• You work at a particular place or organization: She works at the Library of Congress. • You work for a person, company, or organization that employs you: He works for his father.We both work for the same company.• You work in an industry or a type of job, for example education, advertising, or IT: He works in advertising.• You work as a waiter, cashier, accountant etc: She works as a cook. ✗Don’t say: She works as cook.• You work on a project or task: Several people worked on the report.2 do your job [intransitive, transitive]WORK/DO WORK to do the activities and duties that are part of your job Sally isn’t working tomorrow. Staff will have to get used to a new way of working.work with One of the women I work with is getting married this weekend.work under somebody (=have someone who is in charge of you) Each site has a fully trained team who work under a site manager.work days/nights/weekends etc I get paid more if I work nights. We’re sometimes expected to work twelve-hour days. Are you working late (=working after the time you usually finish) again tonight? Forty police officers are working round the clock (=working day and night without stopping) to find Murray’s killer. Nowadays, many people are able to work from home.3 help [intransitive]WORK/DO WORK if you work with someone or a group of people, your job involves trying to help themwork with/among She’s just retired after 38 years working with children. He has worked among some of the world’s poorest people.4 do an activity [intransitive]WORK/DO WORK to spend time and effort doing something I’ve been working in the garden all afternoon. I’m going to have to work really hard to pass these exams. We’re working together to develop a new system.5 try to achieve something [intransitive]TRY TO DO OR GET something to try continuously to achieve a particular thingwork towards They are working towards a solution to their problems.work for We will work for the release of the hostages.work to do something The police are working to provide more help for victims of crime. The company is working hard to improve its image. He worked tirelessly (=worked very hard in a determined way) for the charity throughout his life. 6 machine/equipment a) [intransitive]WORKING/NOT BROKEN if a machine or piece of equipment works, it does what it is supposed to do You should check that the smoke alarm is working properly. The delete key doesn’t work.get something to work I can’t get the heater to work. b) [transitive]SWITCH ON OR OFF to make a machine or piece of equipment do what it is supposed to do My parents can’t even work the video.7 be effective/successful [intransitive]SUCCEED IN DOING something to be effective or successful Making a marriage work can take a lot of effort. I’ve never found a diet that works. The recipe works just as well if you use margarine instead of butter. The cream works immediately to relieve sore skin.work for You need to find which method works best for you.work against a drug that works against some types of cancer8 have an effect [intransitive always + adverb/preposition]EFFECT/INFLUENCE if something such as a fact, situation, or system works in a particular way, it has a particular effect on someone or something The arrangement works well for everyone involved. The French team are the heavier crew, which should work in their favour (=help them). Sexism still works against (=harms or causes problems for) women in many professions. Loyalty works both ways (=involves two opposite or matching effects): we are loyal to our employees and, in turn, they are loyal to us.9 art/style/literature [intransitive]EFFECTIVE if a painting, design, piece of writing etc works, it is successful because it has the effect on you that the painter, writer etc intended I don’t think the scene with the horses really works, do you?work for The colour combination just doesn’t work for me.10 shape/cut something [transitive]TIC if you work a material such as metal, leather, or clay, you cut, sew, or shape it in order to make something 11 use a substance [intransitive]TIC to use a particular material or substance in order to make something such as a picture, design, jewellery etcwork in/with a sculptor who works in steel a jeweller who works with silver12 → work your way to/through etc something13 → work your way through school/college/university etc14 move gradually [intransitive, transitive always + adverb/preposition]MOVE something OR somebodyMOVE/CHANGE POSITION to move into a particular state or position very gradually, either in a series of small movements or after a long time Slowly he worked the screwdriver into the crack.work (its way) loose One of the screws must have worked loose.15 exercise [transitive]MOVE something OR somebody to use and exercise a muscle or part of your body Swimming is a form of exercise that works every muscle in your body.16 move [intransitive, transitive] formal if a part of your body works or you work it, it moves She was trembling and her mouth was working.17 work in an area [transitive] especially American EnglishTRAVEL if you work a particular area or type of place, you travel around the area for your job, or work in that type of place Markowitz works the Tri-State area. 18 → work the door19 entertain a crowd [transitive] if an entertainer or politician works a crowd of people, they entertain them and get their interest or support She really knew how to work a crowd.20 land/soil [transitive]TAC if you work the land, soil etc, you do all the work necessary to grow crops on it He was left to work the farm alone.21 mine [transitive]TI to remove a substance such as coal, gold, or oil from under the ground22 → work like magic/work like a charm23 mind/brain [intransitive]THINK ABOUT if your mind or brain is working, you are thinking or trying to solve a problem24 → work on the principle/assumption/basis etc that25 → work yourself into a frenzy/panic/state etc26 → work it/things27 → work the system28 → work somebody hard29 → work your fingers to the bone30 → work your butt/ass/arse off31 calculate [transitive] American English formalHM to calculate the answer to a mathematical problem 32 → work to rule33 → (it) works for me/you etc34 → work a trend/look etc → work wonders at wonder2(4), → work miracles at miracle(4), → work your magic at magic1(5) → work around somebody/something → work around to something → work at something → work somebody/something in → work something ↔ off → work on somebody/something → work out → work somebody over → work through → work up → work up to something→ See Verb table
Examples from the Corpuswork• "I can't open the jar." "Try putting it in hot water. That sometimes works."• His illness eventually prevented him from working.• I've tried several different diets, but none of them seem to work.• Even where reform has been radical, it has not always worked.• Does the old tape recorder still work?• Does the TV work?• I've been working all day in the garden.• He's changed his job and is now working as a consultant for a German firm.• Her father was an artist who sometimes worked as a salesman and labourer.• For nineteen years, my father worked for the General Electric Corporation.• Frank's been working here for 32 years.• I'd never worked in a lab before I came here.• The research represents the second stage of cross-national collaborative studies undertaken by colleagues working in education in a number of countries.• It is the people who work in the institutions who are most exposed to our dislike.• I bought a bottle of stain remover, and it worked like magic.• Are you prepared to work longer hours occasionally, to get the work done?• Five mornings a week, she worked on campus.• I have to work on Saturday too.• Voice over 16 officers are still working on the case full time.• MacArthur says that the husband alone should work outside the home.• I have no idea how to work these new phones.• Does anyone here know how to work this microwave?• He only works three days a week now.• an organization that is working to preserve California's redwood trees• Not all cancer patients prefer to continue working while undergoing treatment.• Four teachers agreed to work without pay until things were settled.work for• I think Linda works for a law firm.• Trainor spent a lifetime working for equal rights.• My Dad's been working for IBM for over twenty years.• Russell is working as a software developer for Microsoft.• How long have you worked for Mr Jackson?work with• Jerry will be working with me on the project. work with/among• Anyone who worked with him recognised his uncanny ability to find something oddly heroic in all the manifestations of human weakness.• They made no objections to my method and seemed to enjoy working with me.• He worked with Ramsey on several ecumenical committees and respected his mind.• I saw outstanding examples of team work with results impressive in their professionalism.• Also, the posts were round in cross-section, whereas we always worked with square ones.• Macro does a lot of work with the federal government.• More people are going back to work with their hands than ever before.• Now he has had a chance to work with them and perhaps better understands the intricacies of their job.work ... hard• For some managers a busy looking, paper strewn desk, seems to convey that they are very busy and working hard.• We were well educated and we worked hard.• There is an new bread of youth, an elite who work hard and play hard.• Or they make a sumptuous meal and they work very hard and watch their children and wait for their men.• Carrington worked hard, and with dedication, winning a scholarship.• This is your night, your class, and you've worked hard for it.• Instead, they must work hard throughout the period of change until they have integrated new behaviors into daily routines.• Our distributors worked hard to sell our products.work to do something• I believed we were working to build a wonderful future.• It takes time and work to build credibility.• More and more are going into politics with the specific intention of working to change the present unjust system.• He said the airline was now working to clear the backlog, with the delayed flights expected to depart within 24 hours.• He worked to dispel his doubts about his friend as though to pass another test, like his ordeal in the park.• In the United States, researchers are working to find the chemical responsible for odour changes. 6.• We worked hard to persuade the French to attend the meeting.• The Connecticut couple went to Wiedenheft and are working to salvage their marriage.• What's more, a steering box's non-reversibility works to your advantage in a front-drive car. get something to work• Danger is a great thing for getting the body to work!• I'd like the Laboratory building checked first, and as quickly as possible so that the staff can get back to work.• Instead, the two have got together to work on a new service where users will pay for their downloads.• It sounds simple, but Aprilia and Orbital faced a tough challenge getting the system to work.• Lunch is over and she has to get back to work.• Or can I get the heater to work?• When you succeed, pat yourself on the back, take a five-minute break to celebrate, then get back to work.work against• Tax laws tend to work against small businesses.work in ... favour• But de Gaulle held firm because he knew that time was working in his favour.• Some analysts argue that this could work in Merrem's favour.• Somehow it all works in their favour.• The contrast with Yeats is instructive, and it doesn't work in Pound's favour.• Remember - anything that reduces the casualty count will work in your favour because of your fixed rank bonus.• Also, the preponderance of men means that the mating game works in favour of women.• Bags can work in our favour too. work in/with• A similar dynamic was at work with a 1998 initiative campaign that would have allowed open primaries.• He does not show up for work in a bathrobe, even a White House one.• We spend 6 weeks working with local churches doing outreach, and then have one final week of school.• But when they are scalping, they are working in the public interest.• Many people ask to work in the shop, he says.• Petar now goes by the name of Peter and works in the Unmik administration.• I prefer to work in watercolors.• Obviously, works in which the composer creates a continuous musical bridge between one movement and the next.• That doesn't happen when some one works with you as a director, and Jack was like a director, too.work (its way) loose• Check that all cables are firmly in their sockets and have not worked loose.• I therefore put muzzles on all the ferrets I intend to work loose.• It was these bolt which had worked loose.• Since aluminium expands more than steel the steel bolts had worked loose.• This stops them working loose as yours have done and subsequently ruining the engine.?• If these work loose, feedback can arise, so check and tighten if necessary.• The males are usually used as line ferrets and the females are worked loose, muzzled or otherwise.workwork2 ●●● S1 W1 noun 1 job [uncountable]JOB/WORK a job or activity that you do regularly, especially in order to earn money → employment There isn’t a lot of work at this time of the year. He’s been out of work (=without a job) for two years. More people are in work (=have a job) than ten years ago.before/after work (=before a day of work or at the end of a day of work) Do you want to go for a drink after work?► see thesaurus at jobGRAMMAR: Comparisonwork• In this meaning, work is always an uncountable noun. • You say: It may be hard for older people to find work. ✗Don’t say: find a workjob• Job is a countable noun.• You say: I applied for a job as a reporter. ✗Don’t say: I applied for a work.• You say: Her first job was in London. ✗Don’t say: Her first work was in London.2 place [uncountable]WORK FOR somebody a place where you do your job, which is not your home I had an accident on the way to work. He left work at the usual time. I went out with the girls from work last night.at work Dad’s at work right now.3 duties [uncountable]WORK THAT somebody DOES the duties and activities that are part of your job A large part of the work we do involves using computers. He starts work at 4 am. He’s started a business doing gardening and roofing work.4 result [uncountable]WORK THAT somebody DOES something that you produce as a result of doing your job or doing an activity Send a résumé and examples of your work. The building is the work of architect Rafael Moneo. The teacher should make sure that each child has a piece of work displayed on the wall. The standard of work has declined.5 papers etc [uncountable] the papers and other materials you need for doing work Can you move some of your work off the kitchen table? I often have to take work home with me. 6 book/painting/music [countable]A something such as a painting, play, piece of music etc that is produced by a painter, writer, or musician the Collected Works of Shakespeare It is another accomplished work by the artist. → work of art► see thesaurus at music7 activity [uncountable]WORK THAT somebody DOES when you use physical or mental effort in order to achieve somethingwork on Work will start next month on a new swimming pool in the centre of the city. Looking after children can be hard work.carry out/do work You should not allow unqualified people to carry out work on your house.set to work/get down to work (=start work) He set to work immediately.8 study [uncountable]WORK THAT somebody DOES study or research, especially for a particular purposecarry out/do work The centre carries out work to monitor trends in housing management. He did his postgraduate work in Sociology.9 → at work10 → the (whole) works11 → nice work/quick work12 → something is in the works/pipeline13 → works14 → the works15 operation [uncountable] an operation to make you look younger or more attractive SYN cosmetic surgery All these celebrities have had work done.16 → have your work cut out (for you)17 → make short/light work of something18 → make heavy/hard work of something19 → be a work in progress20 → all work and no play (makes Jack a dull boy)21 force [uncountable] technicalHP force multiplied by distance → be all in a day’s work at day(21), → do somebody’s dirty work at dirty1(8), → a nasty piece of work at nasty(7), → nice work if you can get it at nice(12)COLLOCATIONS – Meanings 1 & 3verbsstart workHe started work as a trainee accountant.look for work (also seek work formal)Young people come to town looking for work.find work (=get a job)It was difficult for them to find work.return to work/go back to workHis doctor agreed he was fit enough to return to work.ADJECTIVES/NOUN + workpart-time workIn recent years part-time work has become more popular.full-time workAre you available for full-time work?paid workShe hasn’t done any paid work since she had children.secretarial/clerical/office workI have a background in secretarial work.She had done clerical work before she married.legal work (=work done by lawyers)He will handle all the legal work.manual work (=work done with your hands)Most of them were employed in manual work.voluntary work British English, volunteer work American English (=a job you are not paid for)She also did voluntary work in a girls’ club.somebody’s daily work (=the work someone does every day)When they finished their daily work they would be too tired for much except rest.phrasessomebody’s line of work (=type of work)I meet lots of interesting people in my line of work.the work environmentIt is important to have a pleasant work environment.work practicesShe supported me enthusiastically in bringing in new work practices. COLLOCATIONS – Meaning 7: when you use physical or mental effort in order to achieve somethingverbscarry out workThe work should be carried out without further delay.do workHe was doing some work on his father’s car.set to/get to/get down to work (=start work)They set to work cutting down trees and brushwood.undertake workAbout a three adults in ten undertake voluntary work.work starts/beginsWork had already started on the bridge when the error was spotted.work continuesWork is continuing on three major building projects.adjectiveshardIt’s been very hard work, but I’ve loved every moment of it.backbreaking (=very tiring)Clearing the garden was slow, backbreaking work.arduous (=needing a lot of effort)This was physically arduous work.heavy work (=hard physical work)The heavy work is done by the gardener.light work (=work that is not physically hard)He had been ill, but she found him some light work to do.
Examples from the Corpuswork• For this reason, parents are always welcome to see their children at work in our school.• Her mother tried to call her at home and then at work.• David tries to avoid work at all times.• Have you ever done bar work before?• Are you still involved in charity work?• He's doing construction work these days.• He eventually found work as a labourer on a construction site.• Finally, I would like to thank all the staff for their hard work this year.• She is surrounded by books and papers; her desk piled high with correspondence relating to her work.• Her later works reflected her growing depression.• I'm not doing any more work on the house this year, I can't be bothered.• His last few speeches had been awful, and he knew he had to put more work into them.• Who says museum work doesn't pay?• Handel's "Messiah" is one of the most majestic musical works ever written.• A major new work by one of Poland's leading film directors will be shown next Saturday.• A considerable amount of work was necessary to establish even this basic framework.• A quick change can be effected by using this additional experience to point to another type of work.• Rawls's work reaches somewhat different conclusions concerning justice and equality to that of Hayek.• 'Where's Dave?' 'He's outside, doing some work on the car, I think.'• He liked the work, and he was good at it too.• An opportunity was afforded when the council supported El Universal in its uncomplimentary evaluation of the work of the early independence leaders.• Being in the police isn't all action. Administration is a large part of the work we do.• His injuries have made it impossible for him to go back to work.• Alexander commutes 30 miles to work each day.• Could I ride with you to work tomorrow?• How do you like your work?out of work• Jean's been out of work for six months.• In some of the more desolate regions, half of the active population is out of work.• The number of people out of work and claiming benefit fell by 18,000 in August to 1,051,300.• Punishing the young Young people aged 18-24 years who remain out of work can lose benefits.• It is running out of working cash because it has £ 44m worth of books in stock.• Ron and Melanie found themselves out of work and deep in debt.• Naturally, most people thrown out of work do not like it and suffer psychological stress.• He was out of work for twelve months.• The money went for staffers who were out of work when the probe ended.at work• Danger! Men at work.• It's great seeing his diplomatic skills at work.• She's still at work. I'll ask her to call you when she gets home.starts work• In the mornings Elaine can not get up before 9am - which is when her care assistant starts work.• His committee starts work next week.• She starts work at eight-thirty with Blakelock.a piece of work• It was a triumph, as a piece of work.• Looking at a piece of work on the board Mrs Singh said she wanted her son to write like that.• This may be a piece of work offering straight forward short-term helping around obtaining a service.• It is an opportunity to experience at a practical level the pleasures of creating a piece of work or joining and dance.• Crude as Farley plays it, his endearing-blowfish persona is quite a piece of work.• The result is that a piece of work takes a long time to complete.• He took a piece of work with him to finish.• When a piece of work is late they enquire as to their prey's health, and mention an upcoming pay review.work on• Peter's in the kitchen working on his model airplanes.• Scales and finger exercises are the areas to work on if you want to improve your technique.• Your tennis playing is getting better, but you need to work on your serve.carry out/do work• Between 1390 and 1398 Lewyn was carrying out work at Finchale priory, subordinate to Durham Cathedral.From Longman Business Dictionaryworkwork1 /wɜːkwɜːrk/ verb1[intransitive] to do a job that you are paid forHarry is 78 and still working.Most of the people I went to school with work in factories.work forDavid works for a broadcasting company.work asShe works as a financial consultant.2[intransitive, transitive]HUMAN RESOURCES to do the activities or duties that are part of your jobSally isn’t working tomorrow.I’m tired of working ten-hour days.3[transitive]MARKETING to travel around a particular area as part of your job, especially in order to sell somethingMarkovitz works the Tri-State area.4[intransitive] to do an activity which needs time and effortWe had to work non-stop to get the book finished on time.5work somebody hard to make someone use a lot of time and effort in a job or activityThe company is famous for working its employees hard. 6[transitive] if you work a particular material such as metal, leather etc, you cut or shape it in order to make something7work the land/soilFARMING to do all the work necessary to grow crops on a piece of landOur family has worked this land for generations.8work a mineMANUFACTURING to remove a substance such as coal, gold, or oil from a mine9[intransitive] if a machine or piece of equipment works, it does what it is supposed to doIs the photocopier working now?10[transitive] to operate a machine or piece of equipmentThe check-out is slow, because only two clerks work the cash registers. 11[intransitive] if a method, plan, or system works, it produces the results you wantThe article gives a good understanding of how the pharmaceutical research process works.12[intransitive] if something such as a fact, situation, or system works in a particular way, it has a particular effect on somebody or somethingThe tax laws tend to work against small companies.13work an organization/system etc to know how to influence an organization etc in order to achieve somethingThose who advance in this environment are people with an instinct for securing supplies, cultivating connections and working the system.14work your way up if you work your way up, or work your way up in an organization, your jobs in it become more and more importantThey have spent their entire careers at the firm and worked their way up the ranks.15work to rule British English, work to contract American EnglishHUMAN RESOURCES to protest about a situation at work by doing your job less quickly or effectively than usual, but without breaking your employer’s rules or the terms of your contractThe staff are not on strike but are working to rule. → see also work-to-rule → work out→ See Verb tableworkwork2 noun [uncountable]1the job you are paid to do or an activity that you do regularly to earn moneyMy father started work when he was 14.The work was interesting and well paid.He eventually found work on a construction site.She’s been out of work (=not had a job) for almost a year now.He has been off work (=not working because of illness) for four weeks because of his wrist condition.Many women take part-time work while they are raising children.6.3 million people are working part time but would prefer full-time work.2a place where you do your job, which is not your homeHe left work at the usual time.Jo’s still at work.3HUMAN RESOURCESthe duties and activities that are part of your jobWhat kind of work are you looking for?A large part of the work we do involves using computers.I wouldn’t be very good at manual work (=hard physical work).4work in progress abbreviation WIP British English work or products that are in the process of being done or made, but are not yet finishedSome journals expect editors to retain responsibility for work in progress when they leave.5work in process abbreviation WIP American English work or products that are in the process of being done or made, but are not yet finished → see also worksOrigin work1 Old English wyrcan work2 Old English werc, weorc