From Longman Dictionary of Contemporary Englishriskrisk1 /rɪsk/ ●●● S2 W1 noun 1 [countable, uncountable]RISK the possibility that something bad, unpleasant, or dangerous may happen SYN danger, → chancerisk of Skiers always face the risk of serious injury.risk (that) There is a risk that the disease may spread further.risk to There is no risk to public health.2 [countable]RISK an action that might have bad results → gamble It was a risk, sending a letter to my house.take a risk (=do something that might have bad results) Isn’t he taking a bit of a risk in coming here?take the risk of doing something I couldn’t take the risk of leaving him alone even for a short time.calculated risk (=a risk you take because you think a good result is quite likely)3 [countable]DANGEROUS something or someone that is likely to cause harm or dangerrisk to Polluted water supplies are a risk to public health. Meat from the infected animals is regarded as a serious health risk (=something likely to harm people’s health). The tyre dump is a major fire risk (=something that could cause a dangerous fire). She’s becoming a security risk (=someone who may tell important secrets to an enemy).4 → at risk5 → run a risk6 → at the risk of doing something7 → at your own risk8 [countable]BFI a person or business judged according to the danger involved in giving them insurance or lending them moneygood/bad/poor risk Drivers under 21 are regarded as poor risks by insurance companies.COLLOCATIONSadjectiveshighProfessional sport involves a relatively high risk of injury.lowThe risks of failure are quite low.considerable (=fairly large)Starting up your own business involves considerable risks.a big/great/huge riskThere is a great risk that the wound will become infected.an increased/reduced riskThose who smoke have an increased risk of heart disease.a real riskThere is a real risk that there could be another war.a serious/grave risk (=real and big)The most serious risk of flooding this evening is on the River Wye.a potential riskThe potential risks associated with this operation should not be ignored.a financial riskThere is relatively little financial risk for the company.a political riskThe political risks for the president are minimal.attendant risks formal (=risks involved in something)Those who deal with firearms are generally aware of the attendant risks.verbscarry a risk (=might be dangerous)Most medical operations carry some risk.pose a risk (=might be dangerous)Climate change poses serious risks to the environment.involve/entail riskInvestments that provide a high return generally entail more risk.reduce/minimize a riskThis diet could reduce your risk of certain cancers.increase a riskSmoking increases the risk of heart disease.eliminate risk (=remove risk completely)You can’t eliminate risk in your life completely.avoid a riskThey are anxious to avoid any risk of criticism.face a riskThe dominant male faces the risk that adult males from the group will attack him.risk + NOUNa risk factor (=something that increases a risk)High cholesterol is one of the risk factors associated with heart disease.risk assessment (=a calculation of how much risk is involved in something)Engineering risk assessment is based on objective scientific criteria.phrasesthere is a riskThere is always a risk that mistakes will be made.an element/degree of risk (=some risk, but not much)There is always an element of risk in flying.be worth the riskDon’t walk home alone at night – it’s not worth the risk.the risks involved/the risks associated with somethingThe soldiers were well aware of the risks involved.The public are unwilling to accept the risks associated with nuclear energy.the benefits outweigh the risks (=they are more important than the possible risks)The benefits to patients who are taking the drug far outweigh the risks.
Examples from the Corpusrisk• A high-technology firm, for example, faces a great deal more business risk than does an electric utility.• The whole point is adventure and calculated risk taking.• Many of these beaches are not clean, and they carry a high risk of viral infection for swimmers.• There is a high risk of injury in contact sports such as rugby.• For high risk junctions increasing exemplar risk is associated with an increase in the amount of information described.• The increased risk for acute lymphoid leukemia alone was 43 %, the researchers said.• Among middle-class women, early marriage played a similar role in increasing risk of depression.• Drivers often break the speed limit, and there's little risk of getting caught.• How much risk is there with this kind of operation?• The disease affects cats but there is no risk to humans.• There are a lot of risks involved when you start your own business.• Mantel-Haenszel weights were used for summary risk ratio estimates.• It is possible to get malaria in this area, but the risk is pretty low.• We can't ignore the risk that fighting could spread throughout the region.• What exactly is the risk of an ordinary aircraft crashing?• People continue to smoke, despite knowing the risks of heart disease or cancer.• Wearing a seatbelt can reduce the risk of serious injury.• Clean the wound thoroughly to reduce the risk of infection.• Similarly, they share the risks and the profits or losses which may accrue to them.• A lot of children start smoking without realizing what the risks are.• Trading Bonds for a pitcher is an unacceptable risk because pitchers break down so frequently.• Nothing worthwhile is accomplished without risk or danger.risk to• I'm worried that my age may be a risk to my unborn child.take the risk of doing something• But you daren't take the risk of trying it on in case I was calling your bluff and would refuse you.• Few are willing to take the risk of pursuing major new opportunities that are not covered by their stated objectives.• He believes every nation takes the risk of violence.• Now he saw his chance and desperation forced him to take the risk of climbing down on to the line in the darkness.• Rather than pay the bribes and suffer the losses resulting from delays, people took the risk of fines for disobeying the law.• She blinked twice, taking the risk of missing the right few seconds while her eyes were shut.• Thus the legal aid scheme permits those eligible to take the risk of litigation at the possible expense of the Fund.• Unfortunately, it appears certain that the Federal Reserve will not take the risk of seeking higher growth. security risk• Decorative projecting bricks, alcoves, wrought iron gates, and so on, are a security risk.• Bobby Kennedy declared Sinatra's home a security risk, and the President had to cancel his stay at the Sinatra mansion.• It is hard for me to imagine how you could say they present a security risk.• The investigations are intended to prevent spies, criminals, security risks and other undesirables from entering government.• On paper, Jack Edward Dunlap was the ideal security risk.• Windows 95 users will want to explore some built-in security risks in that software.• The Northern authorities confirmed tonight they wouldn't be switching the tie despite the obvious security risk.• Apparently they regarded Churchill as a poor security risk.good/bad/poor risk• The College did a survey and decided it was not a good risk.• Perhaps; but on the other hand, if insurers are forced to accept bad risks, somebody has to pay.• In this, insurers have to pool good and bad risks and charge a standard premium to all subscribers.• Perhaps over-confidence has meant the taking of poor risks or a laziness over home-work.• Partners can pool their money capital and are usually somewhat better risks in the eyes of bankers.• A second effect is that the worst risks will continue to lose coverage, but this time on price.• This is why the worst risk of swinging and ground looping is always in calm or light wind conditions.riskrisk2 ●●○ verb [transitive] 1 RISKto put something in a situation in which it could be lost, destroyed, or harmed → gamble When children start smoking, they don’t realize that they’re risking their health.risk something to do something He’s prepared to risk everything to avoid this war.risk something on something You’d be crazy to risk your money on an investment like that! He risked his life helping others to escape. I’m not going to risk my neck (=risk my life) just to save a common criminal. Why risk life and limb (=risk your life and health) jumping out of a plane just to raise money for charity?2 RISKto get into a situation where something unpleasant may happen to you → endangerrisk doing something They may even risk losing their homes.risk defeat/death etc He would prefer not to risk another embarrassing defeat. Some people are prepared to risk imprisonment for what they believe.risk being seen/caught/arrested etc Workers who broke the strike risked being attacked when they left the factory.3 RISKto do something that you know may have dangerous or unpleasant resultsrisk doing something Are you prepared to risk traveling without an armed guard? She risked a glance back over her shoulder. You could slip out of school between classes, but I wouldn’t risk it.GrammarRisk is followed by an -ing form, not an infinitive. You say: They risk being shot if they are caught. ✗Don’t say: They risk to be shot.→ See Verb table
Examples from the Corpusrisk• He risked a cautious glance over the wall, and saw a group of guards standing by the gate.• You also see them risking accident and injury in car lanes, weaving in and out of traffic.• They risk arrest but have the support of some Civil Guards.• One thing you never did was correct Nivea and risk being called a young miss-know-it-all.• For example, committing to clear performance objectives risks both clear success and clear failure.• They had risked death in order to get their families to America.• Many refugees risk death or arrest in their attempts to flee persecution.• Once he started wandering aimlessly, a trainee risked disturbing the gods at play.• He had risked his own health to help the sick during the epidemic.• He was still too attached to his national status to risk it by appearing partisan.• Road conditions were supposed to be pretty bad, but we decided to risk it.• The university has already cut its budget as much as possible without risking its quality and reputation.• I decided to risk looking for a place to stay when I got there, rather than booking in advance.• Companies cannot risk losing customers through computer problems.• It was refreshing to hear publishers and booksellers risking offending each other.• I don't want to risk offending your parents.• The Carnegie Hero awards are given to those who risk their lives to save others.risk life and limb• I'm getting too old to risk life and limb for a cheap thrill.• Villeneuve, who had collided with Ralf Schumacher, gets paid £10MILLION for risking life and limb in Formula One.• This meant I didn't have to get risk life and limb to get a good close up shot.risk being seen/caught/arrested etc• Prostitution would be made legal - and kerb-crawlers would not risk being arrested.• He also risked being arrested and put in gaol.• Daren't risk being seen and so he makes his plans.• And we can't risk being seen in this wing.• Check this in advance with your service manager so that you don't risk being caught out when you are in a hurry.risk it• If that's my only chance of getting my husband back, I'll risk it.• At midnight I took the decision to risk it.• But we had to risk it.• If you can't find out, don't risk it.• Matt didn't know whether to believe him but can you risk it?• The advisers decided they couldn't risk it.• Yet he hesitated: would an eagle like Kraal have even risked it?• She risked it all and won!• Then there is the lender's assessment of the risk it is taking.From Longman Business Dictionaryriskrisk1 /rɪsk/ noun1[countable, uncountable] the possibility that something may be lost, harmed, or damaged, or that something bad, unpleasant, or dangerous may happenIf you’re considering starting a business, think carefully about the risks involved.risk ofIf your cheque book is lost or stolen, let your bank know immediately in order to reduce the risk of fraud on your account.This is one high-technology venture that is fairly low in financial risk.risk thatThere is always a risk that the supplier will go out of business before the order is delivered.2[countable, uncountable]FINANCE the possibility that the value of an asset may go up or down on the stockmarketThere is always some risk with any kind of investment.Fund managers have the resources and time to make judgments on which non-rated bonds are worth the risk.3[countable]BANKINGFINANCE the possibility that a person or business will not pay back a loanMany banks will not lend to high-risk borrowers.4[countable]INSURANCE the possibility of a particular type of damage against which you are insuredCheck in detail the risks that are covered by your policy.5[countable]FINANCEINSURANCE a person or business judged according to the risk involved in providing them with insurance or lending them moneyDrivers under 21 are regarded as poor risks by insurance companies.People with previous heart attacks are considered to be higher insurance risks. 6run a risk to be in a situation where there is a risk of something bad happening to youIf you fail to pay your bill, you run the risk of having your electricity supply cut off.7take a risk to decide to do something even though you know it may have bad resultsThe choice facing the Government is whether or not to take a risk with inflation by reducing interest rates.8at risk if something is at risk, it is in a situation where it may be damaged or lostWe have to stop these rumours; the firm’s reputation is at risk.Older workers are most at risk of experiencing long-term unemployment.Your home is at risk (=you might lose it) if you do not keep up repayments on the loan.9at your own risk if you do something at your own risk, you do it when you understand the possible dangers and have been warned about themAll tours are undertaken at the visitor’s own risk.riskrisk2 verb [transitive]1to put something in a situation in which it could be lost, destroyed, or harmedrisk something on somethingYou’d have to be crazy to risk your money on an investment like that!They risked their financial future on a brand-new business venture.2to get into a situation where something unpleasant may happen to youThe workers risked dismissal without compensation if the strike continued.3to do something that you know may have dangerous or unpleasant resultsrisk doing somethingNo bank would risk giving them a loan.→ See Verb tableOrigin risk1 (1600-1700) French risque, from Italian risco